What is Beverages? Classification, Advantages

  • Post last modified:28 June 2023
  • Reading time:40 mins read
  • Post category:Uncategorized

What is Beverages?

Beverages are potable drinks that have thirst-quenching, refreshing, stimulating, and nourishing qualities. Refreshing means the replenishment of fluid loss from the body due to perspiration. Simulation results in an increase in the heartbeat and blood pressure. This is due to the intake of spirits (alcohol) or tea (thein) and coffee (coffee). Nourishment is provided by the nutrients in beverages, especially fruit juices.

Most of the beverages supply energy in the form of sugar or alcohol. They also provide other nutrients like mineral salts and vitamins. For example, milk gives calcium and citrus fruits give vitamin C.

Generally, people drink for one or more of six reasons; to quench thirst, to get drunk, to enjoy a social setting (social drinking), to enjoy the taste of the beverage, to feed the addiction (alcoholism), or as part of a religious or traditional ceremony or custom (proposing toast).

Beverages and Their Classification

A beverage is a liquid formulation specifically prepared for human consumption. The word “Beverage” has been derived from the Latin word “bever” meaning rest from work. After work, one tends to feel thirsty due to fluid loss through perspiration and one is inclined to drink water or other potable beverages to compensate for fluid loss.

Beverages can be broadly classified into two. They are Alcoholic Beverages and Non-alcoholic Beverages. The following chart shows the classification of beverages.

Alcoholic Beverages

An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, with a depressant effect. Significant blood alcohol content may be considered legal drunkenness as it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Ethanol is a psychoactive drug, with a depressant effect, many societies regulate or restrict its sale and consumption.

Alcohol has been widely consumed since prehistoric times by people around the world, as a component of the standard diet, for hygienic or medical reasons, for its relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for other reasons. Some drinks have been invested with symbolic or religious significance suggesting the mystical use of alcohol. However Alcoholic beverages can be addictive and the state of addiction to ethanol is known as alcoholism.

Fermented Alcoholic Beverages

In the fermentation process, certain yeasts decompose sugars, in the feedstock in the absence of oxygen, to form alcohol and carbon dioxide; a method for the production of ethanol, wine, and beer. Low-alcohol-content drinks are produced by fermentation of sugar or starch-containing products, and high-alcohol ones are produced by distillation of these low-alcohol products.

  • Beer: Beer is an alcoholic beverage made by brewing or fermenting cereals mash, especially malted barley, usually with the addition of hops as a flavoring agent (bitter taste) and as a stabilizer. A great many beers are brewed across the globe. Local traditions will give beers different names, giving the impression of a multitude of different styles. However, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. Ale and Lager are the two main types of Beer. These are clear and sparkling. Another beer is stout which is stronger and coloured.

  • Wine: Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the partial or total fermentation of grapes. Other fruits and plants, such as berries, apples, cherries, dandelions, elderberries, palm, honey, and rice can also be fermented. Some popular types of wine are Table wine, Sangria, Sparkling wine, Champagne, Fortified wine, Port, Sherry, Vermouth, etc.

Distilled Alcoholic Beverages

A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified/enriched by distillation from a fermented feedstock such as fruits, vegetables, or cereal grains. The word spirits generally refer to distilled beverages low in sugars and containing at least 35% alcohol by volume. Popular spirits include Absinthe, baijiu, brandy, grappa, rum, tequila, vodka, whisky, sake, and traditional German schnapps. A short description of these is presented below.

  • Whiskey: Whiskey refers to a broad category of alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in wooden casks (generally oak). Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn).

  • Brandy: Brandy is a general term for distilled wine, usually containing 40–60% ethyl alcohol by volume. In addition to wine, this spirit can also be made from grape, pomace, or fermented fruit juice. It is normally consumed as an after-dinner drink. Brandy made from wine is generally colored with caramel to imitate the effect of long aging in wooden casks; pomace and fruit brandies are generally drunk unaged and are not usually colored.

  • Rum: Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other barrels. Rum is produced in a variety of styles. Light rums are commonly used in cocktails, while golden and dark rums are appropriate for use in cooking as well as cocktails. Premium brands of rum are also available that are made to be consumed neat or on the rocks.

  • Vodka: Vodka is one of the world’s most popular distilled beverages. It is a clear liquid containing water and ethanol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as potatoes, grain, or sugar beet molasses, and an insignificant amount of other substances: impurities and possibly flavorings. Except for various types of flavorings, vodka is a colorless liquid. Vodka usually has an alcohol content of 35% to 50% by volume. Vodka is a Russian delight.

  • Saké: It is a Japanese wine made from rice and is very strong.

Compound Beverages

Distilled beverages with added flavorings and relatively high sugar content are generally referred to as compound beverages.

  • Liquer: A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavored with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. The word liqueur comes from the Latin word liquifacere which means “to dissolve.” This refers to the dissolving of the flavorings used to make the liqueur.

    Liqueurs are not usually aged for long periods but may have resting periods during their production to allow flavors to blend. There are many categories of liqueurs including fruit liqueur, cream liqueur, coffee liqueur, chocolate liqueur, schnapps liqueur, brandy liqueur, anise liqueur, nut-flavored liqueur, herbal liqueur, depending upon the flavoring agents used.

  • Gin: Gin is a spirit flavored with juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavored with juniper berries. Compound gin is made by flavoring neutral grain spirit with juniper berries without redistilling and can be considered flavored vodka. The most common style of gin, typically used for mixed drinks, is London dry gin.

Non-alcoholic Beverages

A non-alcoholic beverage is a beverage that contains no alcohol. Such drinks are generally drunk for refreshment, or to quench people’s thirst. Non-alcoholic beverages can be mainly classified as hot and cold beverages.

Cold Drinks

  • Aerated: These beverages are charged or aerated with carbonic gas. The charging with carbonic gas imparts the pleasant effervescent characteristic of these beverages. Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water or an aqueous solution. This process yields the “fizz” to carbonated water and sparkling mineral water. Examples: soda water, dry ginger, fizzy lemonade, ginger beer, coca-cola, Pepsi, and others.

  • Spring water/ Mineral water: Spring water is the water derived from underground formations from which water flows naturally (artesian) to the surface of the earth. Minerals become dissolved in the water as it moves through the underground rocks. This may give the water flavor and even carbon dioxide bubbles, depending upon the nature of the geology through which it passes. This is why spring water is often bottled and sold as mineral water.

    Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or gives it therapeutic value. Salts, sulfur compounds, and gases are among the substances that can be dissolved in water. Mineral water can often be effervescent. Mineral water can be prepared or can occur naturally.

  • Squash: Squash is a highly-sweetened (and often fruit-based) concentrate, which is diluted with a liquid, most commonly water, before drinking. Typically, squash is created by mixing one part concentrate with four or five parts of water (depending on concentration and personal taste) directly into a glass or mug, or jug. Squashes are also mixed with spirits or cocktails. The most common flavors are orange, apple, blackcurrant, lemon, peppermint, mixed fruit, summer fruits, and lemon-lime. Other flavors include peach, strawberry, passion fruit, custard apple, and kiwi fruit.

  • Juice: Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fresh fruits or vegetables without the application of heat or solvents. Popular juices include but are not limited to, apple, orange, prune, lemon, grapefruit, cherry, pineapple, tomato, carrot, grape, strawberry, cranberry, pomegranate guava, sapota, and celery. It has become increasingly popular to combine a variety of fruits into single juice drinks. Popular blends include cran-apple (cranberry and apple) and apple and blackcurrant. Juices are also used for cocktails and mixing with spirits.

  • Syrup: The syrup is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large number of dissolved sugars (60 to 65% brix), but showing little tendency for crystallization of dissolved sugar. The main use of these concentrated sweet fruit flavorings is as a base for cocktails, fruit cups or mixed with soda water as a long drink. Some examples of syrup are orgeat (almond), cassis (blackcurrant), citronella (lemon), framboise (raspberry), and cerise (cherry).

Hot Drinks

  • Tea: Tea is one of the most widely-consumed stimulant beverages in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavor. It has almost no carbohydrates, fat, or protein. Tea is a natural source of the amino acid theanine, methylxanthines such as caffeine and theobromine, and polyphenolic antioxidant catechins.

  • Coffee: Coffee is a widely consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Drip brewed, percolated, or French-pressed / cafetière coffee may be served with no additives (colloquially known as black) or with either sugar, milk or cream, or both. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.

  • Cocoa: It is a powder made from cacao seeds (beans) after they have been fermented, roasted, shelled, ground, and freed of most of their fat. A beverage is made by mixing this powder with sugar in hot water or milk. It is a rich source of theobromine which acts as a stimulant.


The most popular non-alcoholic beverage, tea is a stimulating and refreshing drink. All tea comes from the “Camellia sinensis”, an evergreen shrub that may grow up to 60 feet in the wild. When cultivated for harvest, the tea bushes are kept to a height of about three feet. There are over 3000 varieties of tea each with its specific characteristics. Tea leaves have a characteristic oval shape and serrated edge. Younger the leaves better the quality of the tea.

The kind of tea obtained is determined by the manufacturing process and treatment. The principal flavor components of tea are caffeine, tannin-yielding compounds, and small amounts of essential oils. Caffeine provides a stimulating effect, tannin the color, body, and taste of the extract and the essential oils contribute to the characteristic aroma. It is predominantly grown in India, Ceylon, China, and Japan. Chinese tea contains less tannin than the other varieties.

Tea is mostly named after the region in which they are cultivated. Example: Assam tea is named after the Assam region in India, and Keemun is named after the Keemun region of China.

Types of Tea

The climate, soil conditions where the tea is grown, and how the tea is processed, determines the flavor characteristics of the tea. Tea is harvested after each flush – the sprouting of the top two leaves and bud. Tea pickers’ motto is ‘Two leaves and a bud.’ The top two leaves and buds are hand plucked and then processed into any of the four types of tea, which are Black, Green, Oolong, and White.

  • Black Tea: The leaves are withered, then rolled till they become soft and messy. This is done to break up the fiber and cells of the leaf to liberate the constituents so that their extraction is easy. The leaves are then fermented. During the process of fermentation, some of the acids in the leaves oxidize and are converted into less soluble forms while more essential oils develop. After fermentation is complete, the leaves are fired in a drying machine. Some of the popular black teas include English Breakfast and Darjeeling.

  • Green Tea: Skips the oxidizing step. It is simply withered and then dried. It has a more delicate taste and is pale green/ golden in color. The chief difference between black tea and green tea is the former is fermented while the latter is not. Since the purpose of fermentation is to make tannin less soluble, an infusion of green tea has more tannin in it, astringent and slightly bitter to taste.

  • Oolong tea: Oolong tea is popular in China, it is withered, partially oxidized, and dried. Oolong is a cross between black and green tea in color and taste.

  • White tea: White tea s the least processed. A very rare tea from China, White tea is not oxidized or rolled but simply withered and dried by steaming.

The best tea generally produces a pale-colored infusion and the depth of color is not necessarily a ‘sign of strength.’ Freshly infused tea is harmless to normal digestion; continued infusion extracts tannin, a bitter substance that is harmful.

Storage of Dried Tea

  • Tea easily absorbs moisture and odors and so it must be kept in a cool dry place away from any strong-smelling items.

  • Tea must be stored in an airtight container not exposed to light and used within a reasonable time. Because light breaks down the quality (photo-oxidation) of tea, glass containers are not suitable for the storage of tea unless stored away from light.

  • If the tea is in the chest, it should be kept off the ground and at 16 cm. or 6 inches away from the wafts. This allows a current of air to circulate the tea chest and averts dampness.

  • Once a chest is opened it is advisable to put a close-fitting lid over it.

Preparation of Tea

Tea brewing or preparation is an art that is simple to perform but also requires some care to do well. While essentially tea is brewed by adding boiling water to the dry leaf, the number of leaves, the temperature of the water, and timing are of vital concern. The following is a guide for the preparation of tea. The basic rule of thumb to start is ‘one teaspoon of loose-leaf tea per cup’.

  • Warm your empty teapot by filling it with hot water. This will prevent the hot water from cooling too quickly when leaves are added.

  • Boil freshly drawn tap water. If the quality of your tap water is poor, try using filtered or bottled spring water. For black tea, use the water when it comes to a boil. Water left boiling too long will de-aerate. This will result in a flat-tasting tea. For green tea, the water should be heated to a lower temperature (usually approximately 80 degrees Celsius), which may vary from tea to tea.

  • Empty the hot water from your teapot and add 2.25g or one rounded teaspoon of tea leaves for each cup of water (or one heaping teaspoon per mug), placing the tea directly into the bottom of the pot or using a basket infuser.

    Tea ball strainers, while convenient, often yield poorer-tasting tea as they are often too small to allow all of the leaves to fully unravel their contents. If you do use a tea ball, be sure to use one that is sufficiently large to pack the tea loosely.

  • Add the freshly boiled water over the leaves in the tea pot.

  • Brew tea for the appropriate length of time. The time needed to brew tea varies depending on the leaves being used and the drinker’s taste. Careful timing is essential for brewing tea. A very general rule to follow is the smaller the leaf, the less time is required for brewing. Broken grades of tea leaves and most Darjeeling teas usually only need 3-4 minutes to brew. Whole-leaf teas often need 4-5 minutes.

    All teas, however, will become bitter due to higher tannin extraction if brewed for longer than 5 or 6 minutes. When brewing tea, time with a timer, and not with your eyes. It is a common mistake to brew the tea until it looks like a particular color or shade. The color of the tea is a poor indicator of the tea’s taste.

  • If you use a basket infuser or a tea ball, remove these promptly when the brewing time has expired. If you placed the tea directly into the pot, pour the tea into the cups through a strainer to catch the leaves. In this instance, if you do not wish to serve your tea immediately, pour your tea through a strainer into another pre-heated teapot.

  • Tea sometimes is brewed with spices like fresh ginger, dried ginger powder, or cards to enrich the flavor.

Milk and sugar should be added according to individual tastes. Adding milk first or last does not make any significant difference in the taste of tea – but many people have their choice some like to add milk first and some afterward. Sugar must be added last.

Tea is also taken hot with sugar and slices of lemon. This is known as Russian Tea. For preparing iced tea: prepare strong tea. Pour over crushed ice on which placed a sprig of mint and topped with lemon slices.

Instant tea: Of late completely water-soluble tea powder is getting popular. Another convenient method of preparing tea is to use tea bags.


Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bushes of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. These are cultivated in India, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed to remove the mesocarp, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes.

They are roasted to various degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to produce liquid coffee which is also known as coffee decoction. Coffee can be prepared and presented by a variety of methods to cater to the need of the local palate.

Coffee is always brewed by the user immediately before drinking. In most areas, coffee may be purchased unprocessed, already roasted, or already roasted and ground. Coffee is often vacuum-packed to prevent oxidation and lengthen its shelf life.

Processing of Coffee Beans

Coffee preparation is the process of turning coffee beans into a beverage. While the specific steps needed vary with the type of coffee desired and with the raw material being utilized, the process is composed of four basic steps; raw coffee beans must be roasted, the roasted coffee beans must then be ground, the ground coffee must then be mixed with hot water for a certain time (brewed), and finally the liquid coffee must be filtered off from the spent powder.

  • Roasting: Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is integral to producing a savory cup of coffee. When roasted, the green coffee bean expands to nearly double its original size, changing in color and density. As the bean absorbs heat, the color shifts to yellow and then to a light “cinnamon” brown then to a dark and oily color.

    During roasting, oils appear on the surface of the bean. The roast will continue to darken until it is removed from the heat source. Coffee can be roasted with ordinary kitchen equipment (frying pan, grill, oven) or by specialized appliances. Sometimes, butter fat (melted butter/ghee) is added during roasting to enhance the flavor of the resultant powder.

  • Grinding: The whole roasted coffee beans are ground, which is also known as milling, to facilitate the brewing process. The fineness of the grind strongly affects brewing and must be matched to the brewing method for the best results. Brewing methods that expose coffee grounds to heated water for longer require a coarser grind than faster brewing methods.

    Uniformly ground coffee is better than the mixture of sizes produced by a mill with chopping blades. Many coffee drinkers grind the beans themselves immediately before brewing. There are four methods of grinding coffee for brewing: burr-grinding, chopping, pounding, and roller grinding.

Methods of Preparation of Coffee

General methods of preparation of coffee are given below. This is followed by specific methods of brewing coffee which are given under appropriate headings.

  • Brewing: Coffee can be brewed in several different ways, but these methods fall into two main groups depending on how the water is introduced to the coffee grounds.
    • If the method allows the water to pass only once through the grounds, the resulting brew will contain mainly the more soluble components (including caffeine).

    • If the water is repeatedly cycled through the beans (as with the common percolator), the brew will also contain more of the relatively less soluble, and bitter-tasting, compounds found in the bean, but for this coarse ground coffee will be required.
  • Boiling: Despite the name, care should be taken not to boil coffee for more than an instant because the decoction becomes bitter.
    • The simplest method is to put the ground coffee in a cup, pour in hot water and let it cool while the grounds sink to the bottom. This is a traditional method for making a cup of coffee (known as “mud coffee”)

    • “Cowboy coffee” is made by simply heating coarse grounds with water in a pot, letting the grounds settle, and pouring off the liquid to drink, sometimes filtering it to remove fine grounds.

The above methods are sometimes used with hot milk instead of water.

Water temperature is crucial to the proper extraction of flavor from the ground coffee. The recommended brewing temperature of the coffee is 93°C (199.4°F). If cooler, some of the solubles that make up the flavor will not be extracted. If the water is too hot, some undesirable, bitter, components will be extracted, adversely affecting the taste. If coffee is heated to boiling point only very briefly, the taste will be little affected; the longer it is kept at a high temperature the worse the taste becomes.

  • Steeping: A cafetière (or French press) is a tall, narrow cylinder with a plunger that includes a metal or nylon mesh filter. Coffee is placed in the cylinder and boiling water is poured on. The coffee and hot water are left in the cylinder for a few minutes (typically 4′-7′) and the plunger is pushed down leaving the filter immediately above the grounds, allowing the coffee to be poured out while the filter retains the grounds.

    Depending on the type of filter, it is important to pay attention to the grind of the coffee beans, though a rather coarse grind is almost always called for. A plain glass cylinder may be used, or a vacuum flask arrangement to keep the coffee hot.

  • Drip Brew: Drip brew (also known as a filter or American coffee) is made by letting hot water drip onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter (paper or perforated metal). Strength varies according to the ratio of water to coffee and the fineness of the grind, but is typically weaker than espresso, though the final product contains more caffeine. By convention, regular coffee brewed by this method is served in a brown or black pot (or a pot with a brown or black handle), while decaffeinated coffee is served in an orange pot (or a pot with an orange handle).

Moka Pot Method

There is an art to making coffee in a moka pot that includes the amount of water, the amount and grind of the coffee, the compactness of the coffee grounds in the filter, and the heat of the water used to brew it. It is possible to make excellent coffee without any acidity or bitterness in a moka pot if you follow the simple procedures listed below:

  • Place your kettle of cold water on your stove burner and heat water until hot. Depending on the quality of your water, you may find that using filtered water significantly improves the taste of your coffee.

  • Grind your coffee. Grind just a little coarser than for an espresso machine (fine, espresso grind of dark roasted coffee). Just coarse enough so it doesn’t go through the upper filter holes or block them.

  • Place hot water in the bottom section of the pot up to the level of the safety valve.

  • Insert the filter basket. Fill the filter basket with ground coffee until it is level and then level off with a knife. Do not compact the coffee, because as the water reaches the grounds it will expand effectively tamping your coffee for you.

  • Make sure the filter disk and gasket are in place in the top portion of the pot. Screw the top section onto the bottom section of the pot and tighten it to obtain a perfect seal. If using a stovetop Moka pot, place it on the stove on medium to medium-high heat. When hot, the air and water trapped inside the bottom tank expand due to the heat being applied to the device. As this happens, it pushes the hot water up a tube, through the coffee grinds, and out of the spout into the top chamber of the pot.

  • When the water in the tank has been exhausted, that’s when you hear the ‘gurgle,’ which signifies the drink is ready to pour (approximately 4-5 minutes). Brewing is completed when all the water has been percolated into the top chamber. Remove the moka pot from the stove.

Do not put the pot in the dishwasher. Wash the pot in mild detergent and water and dry thoroughly after each use. Always keep your moka pot scrupulously clean. Disassemble the moka pot after every use and clean the filter and top pot, being sure that you clean the underside of the top pot. Every few weeks, run some vinegar through the moka pot as if you were brewing coffee to get rid of any mineral deposits left behind by hard water.

Pot Method

  • Warm an earthenware pot or jug. Put in 3 level teaspoons of fresh coffee powder (coarse grind) for each 250 ml cup.

  • Pour water which has started to boil over the powder and stir. Cover the pot and let it stand near the fire for 5 to 7 minutes.

  • Pour the coffee through a fine-meshed sieve or cloth. Add milk and sugar to taste.

Filter Method

Several types of filters are available. Stainless steel or brass filters are the best, but the latter should be properly tinned, or else the coffee will be spoilt. Glass or china containers are good but are fragile. Copper should not be used because of possible copper poisoning.

  • Put in 3 level teaspoons of coffee powder (fine or medium grind) to each 250 ml. or 8 oz. cups. Press the plunger down lightly over the powder.

  • Pour water which has just come to boil over (the plunger in a circular motion. Let it stand for 5 to 7 minutes.

  • Coffee can be poured out straight from the lower vessel and milk and sugar added as required.

Percolator Method

  • Place the ground coffee powder in the center section of a clean warm percolator on a fine strainer fitted inside and resting on a paper filter (a pinch of salt is mixed with the coffee).

  • Pour fresh boiling water slowly through the top section.

  • The water passes through the coffee, is strained, and collects in the bottom section of the apparatus.

Espresso or Caffè Espresso

Espresso is a concentrated coffee beverage brewed by forcing very hot, but not boiling water under high pressure through coffee that has been ground to a consistency between extremely fine and powder.

The defining characteristics of espresso include a thicker consistency than drip coffee, a higher amount of dissolved solids than drip coffee per relative volume, and a serving size that is usually measured in shots, which are between 25 and 30 ml (30ml=1 fluid ounce) in size. Espresso is chemically complex and volatile, with many of its chemical components quickly degrading due to oxidation or loss of temperature.

Properly brewed espresso has three major parts: the heart, body, and the most distinguishing factor, the presence of crema, reddish-brown foam that floats on the surface of the espresso. It is composed of vegetable oils, proteins, and sugars. Crema has elements of both emulsion and foam colloid.

Instant Coffee

A thick coffee decoction is prepared first and then it is either spray-dried to a fine powder or freeze-dried to granules. When added to hot water it dissolves completely leaving no residue.

Turkish Coffee

It is heavily laced with cardamom and is quite thick in consistency. It is a traditional after-meal drink in many Arab countries.

General Rules for Storing and for Making Coffee

  • Coffee loses aroma and flavor with storage, as the volatile components evaporate. It should be roasted and ground immediately before brewing for the best possible drink.

  • Roasted coffee beans can be stored for some time, and can be re-roasted briefly immediately before use. Ground coffee should be used within two or three days of grinding.

  • Vacuum-packing extends storage life much. Roasted coffee, whether ground or not, can be kept in an airtight container in a freezer to lengthen shelf life.

  • Fresh coffee is the best; so buy quantities to last not more than a week.

  • Use the exact quantity of powder required.

  • Use freshly drawn and freshly boiled water.

  • The coffee maker must be rinsed with hot water before each use and thoroughly washed and dried before being put away. Never brew less than three-fourths of the coffee maker’s capacity; use a smaller one instead.


Cocoa, besides being a stimulant, is also a food. It is prepared from the seeds (beans) of a tree called theobromine cacao, grown in South and Central America. the West and East Indies and along the Gold Coast and adjacent areas in Africa. Common commercial varities are criolo (fine quality) and trinitario (medium quality). The pods are gathered in heaps and cut open with sharp rounded knives.

The cocoa beans which are covered with a moist, glistening sweet white pulp (mucilage) are scooped out. Oxidation begins almost at once causing the beans to become brown. Therefore, as soon as possible, they must be placed on fermenting heaps and spread in the sun to remove the moisture so that spoilage does not set in.

However, fermentation is necessary to get the finest possible flavor. This is accompanied by a rise in temperature and the transformation of natural sugars to acetic and other acids. After several days, this operation is complete and the beans are allowed to dry. They are then ready to be packed and shipped.

Cocoa contains theobromine and caffeine as well as starch fat, nitrogenous compounds, and salts. So, apart from being a stimulating drink, it is also a food. Cocoa can be prepared in milk only, or in milk and water, mixed to suit the taste of the individual.

The powder is mixed with sugar to avoid lumping. A little cold milk is added and a thick even paste is made. Either hot milk or hot milk and water are poured over. The preparation is then allowed to boil for a few minutes which improves the flavour. A pinch of salt added at the beginning enhances the flavor.

Advantages of Beverages

  • Refreshment: Non-alcoholic beverages such as plain or carbonated water, lime juice, ginger ale and other bottled beverages, fruit juices, and iced tea or coffee are refreshing drinks and are used to relieve thirst.

  • Nourishment: Pasteurized milk, buttermilk, chocolate, and cocoa drinks, eggnog made with rum, fruit juices, glucose water, and lemonade provide nutrients and help in nourishing the body.

  • Stimulant: Tea, coffee, cocoa, and chocolate beverages help in stimulating the system.

  • Soothing Agent: Warm milk and hot tea have a soothing effect and are used for this purpose.

  • Appetizers: Soups, fruit juice, and alcoholic drinks in limited quantities increase an individual’s appetite and thereby food consumption.
Article Reference
  • Andrew Durkan, John Cousins (1995), The Beverage Book, Hodder Arnold H&S.

  • Costas Katsigris, Chris Thomas (2006), The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  • Wallace Rande, The Beverage Service World, Valentino Luciani (2000), Prentice Hall.

  • Mary Lou Heiss (Author), Robert J. Heiss (2007), Hot Drinks: Cider, Coffee, Tea, Hot Chocolate, Spiced Punch, and Spirits, Ten Speed Press.

Leave a Reply